The Martian atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide, 2% nitrogen 0.14% oxygen and 0.06% cobalt. Other than dirt, carbon dioxide is the most abundant resource on Mars. The abundant supply of carbon is very-important for human-space exploration; Carbon dioxide has an oxygen bond inside of it. Meaning, we may free up the oxygen in the carbon dioxide on Mars we can use oxygen without bringing oxygen to spacecraft.
Moxie The Golden Box
The Perseverance rover will be carrying seven scientific instruments when it arrives on the red planet. One of these instruments being MOXIE or the Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment. MOXIE job is to produce oxygen on Mars
How MOXIE Operates
MOXIE will produce oxygen through a technology called solid oxide electrolysis. MOXIE will put electricity in and electrolyze and get fuel and an oxidizer out.
Outside of the rover, there will be a filter cover. The filter cover will prevent MOXIE from taking in the dust. MOXIE has a scroll compressor that takes in low-pressure Martian gas from the atmosphere and compresses it. The pressure after being compressed is similar to Earth's atmospheric pressure.
Then the pressure is run into solid oxide electrolysis. The solid oxide electrolysis-multiple layers containing different chemical properties that at high temperatures conduct electricity using oxygen. The solid oxide electrolysis can heat to about 800-degree Celsius or 1,472 degrees Fahrenheit.
According to NASA, "The Solid Oxide Electrolysis controls parameters such as CO2 input flow rate, temperature, and applied voltage are-used to optimize O2 production under Mars environmental conditions."